Laws predating the 10 commandments
In Genesis 19 (a distasteful story) Lot cowardly offers up his virgin daughters to be raped in lieu of his guest. And he was the best Sodom had to offer for morality. As for coveting your neighbor’s posessions, thought crime about his wife is hardly illegal (though rather gauche), nor is trying to outdo the Jones’s with the latest gadgets.I’m not going to say jealousy is a good thing (though the second of the two does give impetus to the economy), but nor is it illegal.
12 Honor your father and your mother, so that your days may be long in the land that the Lord your God is giving you. ~ Exodus 20:2-17So how do we go about testing this hypothesis?
7 You shall not make wrongful use of the name of the Lord your God, for the Lord will not acquit anyone who misuses his name. 9 For six days you shall labour and do all your work.
10 But the seventh day is a Sabbath to the Lord your God; you shall not do any work—you, your son or your daughter, your male or female slave, your livestock, or the alien resident in your towns. 16 You shall not bear false witness against your neighbour.
Case law, with which we are greatly familiar with in North America, evolved in England as part of Common Law.
There is very little evidence from legal history scholarship that the bible, let alone the Ten Commandments, had any influence on modern law worth mentioning.