Chris campbell battle east sussex
Jackson was hit by friendly fire, requiring his left arm to be amputated; he died of pneumonia eight days later, a loss that Lee likened to losing his right arm. George Stoneman began a long distance raid against Lee's supply lines at about the same time. Crossing the Rapidan River via Germanna and Ely's Fords, the Federal infantry concentrated near Chancellorsville on April 30.Despite the objections of his subordinates, Hooker withdrew his men to the defensive lines around Chancellorsville, ceding the initiative to Lee. The fiercest fighting of the battle—and the second bloodiest day of the Civil War—occurred on May 3 as Lee launched multiple attacks against the Union position at Chancellorsville, resulting in heavy losses on both sides. John Pope's Army of Virginia was defeated at the Second Battle of Bull Run. This string of Union defeats was interrupted in September 1862 when Lee moved into Maryland and his campaign was turned back by Mc Clellan at the Battle of Antietam, but this represented no threat to Richmond. Ambrose Burnside decided to conduct a mass purge of the Army of the Potomac's leadership, eliminating a number of generals who he felt were responsible for the disaster at Fredericksburg. Sumner stepped down due to old age (he was 65) and poor health. Daniel Butterfield was reassigned from command of the V Corps to be Hooker's chief of staff. Previously, intelligence gatherers, such as Allan Pinkerton and his detective agency, gathered information only by interrogating prisoners, deserters, "contrabands" (slaves), and refugees.He decided to violate one of the generally accepted principles of war and divide his force in the face of a superior enemy, hoping that aggressive action would allow him to attack and defeat a portion of Hooker's army before it could be fully concentrated against him. William Barksdale on heavily fortified Marye's Heights behind Fredericksburg and one division under Maj. This would amass 40,000 men to confront Hooker's movement east from Chancellorsville.He became convinced that Sedgwick's force would demonstrate against him, but not become a serious threat, so he ordered about 4/5 of his army to meet the challenge from Chancellorsville. Fortunately for the Confederates, heavy fog along the Rappahannock masked some of these westward movements and Sedgwick chose to wait until he could determine the enemy's intentions.Built in the early 19th century, it had been used as an inn on the turnpike for many years, but now served as a home for the Frances Chancellor family. By dawn on April 29, pontoon bridges spanned the Rappahannock south of Fredericksburg and Sedgwick's force began to cross.(Some of the family remained in the house during the battle.) Hooker arrived late in the afternoon on April 30 and made the mansion his headquarters. Pleased with the success of the operation so far, and realizing that the Confederates were not vigorously opposing the river crossings, Hooker ordered Sickles to begin the movement of the III Corps from Falmouth the night of April 30 – May 1.The area had once been an open broadleaf forest, but during colonial times the trees were gradually cut down to make charcoal for local pig iron furnaces.When the supply of wood was exhausted, the furnaces were abandoned and secondary forest growth developed, creating a dense mass of brambles, thickets, vines, and low-lying vegetation.
One of the defining characteristics of the battlefield was a dense woodland south of the Rapidan known locally as the "Wilderness of Spotsylvania".
Stoneman's cavalry began on April 30 its second attempt to reach Lee's rear areas. By May 1, Hooker had approximately 70,000 men concentrated in and around Chancellorsville.
In his Fredericksburg headquarters, Lee was initially in the dark about the Union intentions and he suspected that the main column under Slocum was heading towards Gordonsville.
It was important for Hooker's plan that his men move quickly out of this area and attack Lee in the open ground to the east.
There were three primary roads available for this west-to-east movement: the Orange Plank Road, the Orange Turnpike, and the River Road.
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The Chancellorsville Campaign was one of the most lopsided clashes of the war, with the Union's effective fighting force more than twice the Confederates', the greatest imbalance during the war in Virginia.